"Scars have the strange power to remind us that our past is real."

Cormac McCarthy

Last updated 3 April 2020  © Julia Edwards

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Before the Restoration

 

James I

First Stuart

king of England

1566-1625

Before the Restoration

 

Charles I

King from 1625

1600-1649

Before the Restoration

 

Commonwealth

1649-1659

RESTORATION!

 

Charles II

King from 1660

1630-1685

James II

King for 3 years

1633 -1701

1610

1600

1620

1680

1660

1650

1670

1640

1630

1690

In 1625, Charles I became king of England, Scotland and Ireland, like his father before him. He was an unpopular king who habitually agreed to do things when he was secretly doing the opposite. England fell into civil war under his rule.  

The Great Fire of London broke out on 2 September 1666.

Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603. This was the end of the Tudor dynasty because  the throne passed to her cousin from the House of Stuart, James VI of Scotland who became James I of England.

1605 was the year of the Gunpowder Plot, when Guy Fawkes and his fellow conspirators attempted to blow up parliament and assassinate James I.

 

 

 

 

​

 

In 1625 James I died. The throne passed to his son, Charles I.

In 1625, Charles I became king of England, Scotland and Ireland, like his father before him. He was an unpopular king who habitually agreed to do things when he was secretly doing the opposite. England fell into civil war under his rule.  

The English Civil War was between the Royalists (known as the Cavaliers), who were supporters of King Charles I (and after his execution, King Charles II), and the Parliamentarians (known as the Roundheads).

 

The war was in three phases:

 

1642-1646   First English Civil War, won by the Parliamentarians

 

​​1648-1649 Second English Civil War, also won by the Parliamentarians, ending with the execution of Charles I.

The Civil War continued after Charles I was beheaded, with the Royalists taking up the cause of his son, Charles II.

1649-1651 Third English Civil War, won by the Parliamentarians

 

Charles II failed to take back control of England from the Parliamentarians, and England became a republic known as the Commonwealth. Charles escaped to exile in France. 

 

1653-1659 Oliver Cromwell made England a Protectorate.

Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

His son, Richard Cromwell, became Lord Protector until 1659.

 

In 1659, less than a year after Oliver Cromwell's death, the army rose up against the new Lord Protector and paved the way for the return of the king.

In 1660, King Charles II returned from exile and was restored to the throne, which is why this period is called the Restoration.

 

​In 1665, the Great Plague killed about 100,000 people.

1666: the Great Fire of London!

Charles II had no legitimate children, despite having lots of illegitimate ones. When he died in 1685, his brother, James II, became king.

James II was a Catholic, and as a result, not a popular king. Less than four years after he came to the throne, his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, were encouraged by Protestant nobles to invade England from the Netherlands. James fled, and William and Mary ruled England together from 1689.

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