Queen for 63 years
1837 - 1901
Victoria was born in 1819.
Victoria came to the throne in 1837, just after she turned 18.
1840 was an eventful year for Victoria:
- she married her German cousin, Prince Albert
- got pregnant
- got shot at while out in her carriage - she was unharmed
- gave birth to her first child, a daughter, also called Victoria
1841: Victoria gave birth to a son, Albert Edward
1842: Victoria was shot at again twice, by two different men - again she was unharmed. In total there were 8 attempts on her life while she was queen.
1843: Victoria gave birth to Alice
In the same year, Charles Dickens published A Christmas Carol following on from the success of several other novels
1844: Victoria gave birth to Alfred
Between 1845 and 1849, Ireland suffered a terrible famine, often called the Potato Famine. A million people died, and a million more emigrated, many of them to America.
1846: Victoria gave birth to Helena
1847: the 10-hour Act limited working hours to ten-hours per day
1848: Victoria gave birth to Louise
1850: Victoria gave birth to Arthur
1851: The Great Exhibition was held in Hyde Park from May to October, celebrating industrial design and technology from all over the world. The exhibition included the first public flushing toilets for the use of visitors. These cost a penny to use, which is where we get the phrase 'to spend a penny'.
1853: Victoria gave birth to Leopold
1854: Florence Nightingale travelled out to the Crimea to nurse British soldiers wounded in battle.
In the same year, London Paddington railway station opened, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
1857: Victoria gave birth to Beatrice. All nine of Victoria's children survived to adulthood, which was very unusual at that time, even in wealthy families.
1859: Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species outlining his theory of evolution by natural selection.
1861: Prince Albert died, aged just 42.
Victoria went into deep mourning and disappeared from public.
1863: the first underground railway opened between Paddington and Farringdon, using gas-lit carriages pulled by a steam engine.
1865: Lewis Carroll published Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
1866: the Sanitary Act forced authorities to improve sewers, access to clean water, and street cleaning.
1870: the Elementary Education Act was passed, which started to improve the education of children aged between 5 and 12.
1876: Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
1877: Thomas Edison invented the phonograph for recording and replaying sound, before moving on to inventing electric light.
In the 1870s and 1880s bicycles known as penny farthings became popular. These had a very large front wheel and a small rear wheel.
1881: the Natural History Museum opened in London
1888: Victoria's eldest grandson, the son of her daughter, Victoria, became Emperor of Germany. He was Kaiser Wilhelm, leader of Germany during the First World War.
In the same year Jack the Ripper murdered five women in East London.
1895: the author, Oscar Wilde, was arrested and sentenced to two years imprisonment and hard labour for being gay. The hardship he suffered in prison contributed to his death in 1900, aged just 46.
1897: Guglielmo Marconi sent the first wireless communication, from Bristol to South Wales. This was the birth of radio.
Queen Victoria died in 1901, and her son Edward became king. This marked the end of Victorian times, and the beginning of Edwardian England.
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